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Technical Document


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Controller Area Network (CAN) Interfaces
NI CAN Series 2 Interfaces for PCI, PXI, and PCMCIA
• Hardware timing and synchronization
with NI data acquisition, vision,
and motion devices
100% bus load; for up to 1 Mb/s
ISO 11898-compliant for standard
(11-bit) and extended (29-bit)
ar
bitration IDs
Philips SJA1000 CAN controller
Available in high-speed,
low-speed/fault-tolerant,
and single-wire versions
Hardware timestamping
Intel 80386EX microprocessor
f
or timed CAN frame transfer
Optical isolation up to 500 V
Import Vector database files
with NI-CAN
Operating Systems
Windows 2000/NT/XP/Me/98
• LabVIEW Real-Time
Recommended Software
LabVIEW
• LabWindows/CVI
Other Compatible Software
• C/C++
Visual Basic 6
Application Software (included)
Bus monitor utility
Driver Software (included)
• NI-CAN
Overview
CAN interfaces meet the physical and electrical requirements for in-
vehicle automotive networks based on CAN. All CAN interfaces
include NI-CAN device driver software, with which you can import
CAN channels from Vector database files or create them in an
easy-to-use utility and program using a high-level API. With a
National Instruments CAN interface and NI-CAN software, you can use
a desktop, industrial, or notebook PC running Windows for a variety
of CAN applications, including automotive testing and diagnostics,
prototype design, factory automation, and machine control.
CAN Bus and Analog Data Synchronization
R
e
cent advances in automotive test applications demand tighter
integration of CAN and other measurement devices. In many
applications, you need to synchronize the physical parameters
measured in time to correlate the data. You can program this
synchronization in software, but OS latency sometimes introduces
unacceptable delays for certain automotive test applications.
National Instruments CAN, data acquisition, vision, and motion
boards for PCI are equipped to share timing and triggering signals.
In a system, a CAN board can share timing and triggering signals
with data acquisition, image acquisition, or motion control boards,
basing their actions on these signals. Determinism is maintained
between the trigger signal and the desired response because timing
and triggering signals are handled in hardware. The host PC software
interacts only to retrieve the data once it is acquired or to write
ne
w data.
Synchronization is available for PXI, PCI, and PCMCIA-CAN
devices. For PXI modules, the timing signals are shared in the PXI
trigger bus on the backplane; therefore, you do not need additional
cables to take advantage of synchronization. For PCI boards, you can
use a RTSI bus cable to share the signals. For PCMCIA-CAN, a
synchronization cable connects external timing and triggering signals
to the card to achieve synchronization between PCMCIA-CAN and
PCMCIA, USB, or PCI data acquisition hardware.
LabVIEW Real-Time Compatibility
PCI and PXI CAN hardware works with LabVIEW Real-Time running
on a PC or a PXI controller for deterministic control. You can download
your existing NI LabVIEW application to the target without specialized
real-time OS programming knowledge. The real-time performance and
synchronization mean you can use a standard PC or PXI chassis for
ap
plicat
ions such as rapid control prototyping, hardware-in-the-loop
testing, and data logging.
Common Hardware
All National Instruments Series 2 CAN devices use the Intel 80386EX
microprocessor to handle communications directly on the interface
device. The 80386EX provides a dedicated environment for reliable,
high-performance CAN communications protocol stack execution.
Because acquisition and transmission timing occur on the board,
CAN frames are not lost due to OS activity such as hard drive
access, mouse movements, or virus scans. The physical layer of all
National Instruments CAN devices fully conforms to the ISO 11898
physical layer specification for CAN and is optically isolated to 500 V.
You can interface to the CAN bus using a 9-pin male D-Sub (DB9)
c
onnector. The Philips SJA1000 CAN controller implements typical
ISO 11898 CAN functionality and offers additional functionality to aid
in system development, such as listen-only mode, sleep/wakeup mode,
e
rror counter access, and self-reception (echo) mode.
High-Speed CAN Hardware
High-speed CAN interfaces can communicate with devices using
transfer rates up to 1 Mb/s. Typical high-speed devices include antilock
brake systems, engine control modules, and emissions systems.
Low-Speed/Fault-Tolerant CAN Hardware
Low-speed/fault-tolerant CAN interfaces can communicate with
devices up to 125 kb/s and offer transceivers with fault-tolerant
capabilities. Typical low-speed/fault-tolerant devices in an automobile
include comfort devices such as seat and mirror adjusters.
Single-Wire CAN Hardware
Single-wire CAN interfaces can communicate with devices at rates up
to 33.3 kb/s (88.3 kb/s in high-speed mode). Typical single-wire
devices within an automobile include comfort devices such as seat and
mirror adjusters.
Software-Selectable CAN Hardware
You can configure the software-selectable CAN interface for high-speed,
low-speed/fault-tolerant, or single-wire CAN. Multiple-transceiver
hardware offers the perfect solution for applications that require a
combination of communications standards.
NI-CAN Communications Software
National Instruments ships CAN devices with NI-CAN software for
Windows 2000/NT/XP/Me/98. NI-CAN software includes device
drivers that you can use for application development and firmware that
runs on the embedded Intel 80386EX microprocessor. The
NI-CAN device drivers are full 32-bit drivers designed for
Windows 2000/NT/XP/Me/98. These device drivers are compatible
with NI LabVIEW and LabWindows/CVI as well as standard
p
r
ogramming environments such as Microsoft Visual C/C++, Borland
C/C++, and Visual Basic 6. The firmware implements time-critical
features provided by the NI-CAN software. NI-CAN software provides
flexible yet easy-to-use functions for configuration and I/O on CAN.
The Intel 80386EX microprocessor on an NI-CAN interface provides
the operating environment for the CAN protocol communications stack.
CAN specifies timing requirements to ensure reliable, deterministic bus
operation. In a typical system, a National Instruments CAN interface must
provide the necessary system responsiveness. Because the majority of the
CAN p
rotocol executes on the embedded Intel 80386EX microprocessor
on NI CAN interfaces, you can achieve improved response to incoming
messages. Embedded CAN protocol stack execution also results in more
deterministic network performance because the onboard microprocessor
is dedicated to CAN communication activities.
CAN Programming
With NI-CAN software, you can import CAN channel database files
that use the Vector format (.dbc). A CAN frame can contain multiple
values. By importing scaling information from the database files, you
can easily convert these values into channels with engineering units
(such as °C or kPa). You can either import the scaling information
directly into an application or into Measurement & Automation
Explorer (MAX), where you can edit channels. Alternatively, you can
configure channels directly in MAX.
NI-CAN software provides two different application programming
interfaces (APIs) – channel and frame, with which you can develop
applications customized to your test and simulation requirements.
The channel API provides access to the CAN bus in easy-to-use
engineering units, using channels. Therefore, it is recommended for
customers who are new to NI-CAN. The channel API simplifies
multiple device integration and synchronization. With the frame API,
which provides lower-level access to the CAN bus, you can read and
write raw frames on the network. The frame API is recommended for
users that require low-level access to the CAN bus.
Controller Area Network (CAN) Interfaces
2
National Instruments Tel: (800) 813 3693 info@ni.com ni.com
Controller Area Network (CAN) Interfaces
3
National Instruments Tel: (800) 813 3693 info@ni.com ni.com
NI-CAN Features in
Measurement & Automation Explorer
Test Panel
You can communicate with a specific CAN channel without
programming using Test Panel, a simple debugging tool to experiment
w
ith CAN channels. Using a graphical interface, the tool reads CAN
data in engineering units and plots or writes to the device.
Bus Monitor
To quickly monitor all CAN bus traffic, use the Bus Monitor, a utility
that provides an easy-to-use interface to view all CAN traffic and log
it t
o disk. It also provides options to control, display, and view
bus statistics.
NI Spy
NI Spy gives you an easy way to monitor the NI-CAN API calls your
application makes without having to recompile or rebuild. Use it to
verify that your application is working properly, troubleshoot
problems with your application, or verify the communication with
your CAN device. NI Spy dynamically captures and displays all
NI-CAN API calls made by any applications running in the system.
Physical Layer
The CAN physical layer connects the CAN controller to the physical
bus wires. The boards contain the PCI and PXI physical layers. They are
powered internally (from the boards) via a DC-DC converter,
and optically isolated up to 500 V. This isolation protects your
NI-CAN hardware and the PC it is installed in from being damaged by
high-voltage spikes on the CAN bus.
For PCMCIA-CAN cards, the physical layer is implemented inside
the cable. The cables can be powered either internally (from the host
c
o
mputer) via an onboard DC-DC converter, or externally (from the
CAN bus) via a voltage regulator. PCMCIA-CAN physical layer cables
are included with PCMCIA interfaces.
Connector
PCI-CAN and PXI-846x interfaces have a 9-pin male D-Sub (DB9)
connector for each port. The 9-pin D-Sub connector follows the pinout
recommended by CiA DS 102. Figure 2 shows the 9-pin D-Sub
connector pinout for high-speed and low-speed/fault-tolerant
int
erfaces. PCMCIA-CAN cables have both a 9-pin male D-Sub and
Combicon-style pluggable screw terminal connector for each port.
1
1
As shown in Figur
e 3 on page 4.
Note: See the NI CAN hardware and software reference manual for pinouts for single-wire
and so
ftware-selectable interfaces.
CAN Device Simulator
The National Instruments CAN Device Simulator, when
communicating with NI CAN and data acquisition (DAQ) hardware
on a PC, provides a tool to demonstrate the concepts of CAN
communication, DAQ, and CAN/DAQ synchronization.
The NI CAN Device Simulator has a function generator, one high-
speed CAN interface, one high-speed CAN monitor connector, a
68-pin DAQ connector, access to the DAQ interface TRIG1, TRIG2,
and FREQOUT pins, and digital input switches.
Figure 1. NI CAN Device Simulator
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